TGF-beta 1
Human Recombinant TGFB1 - His Tagged
Reference ID:KB-3689
Western Blot
ELISA
FACS
Protein:Protein
Flow Cytometry
Gene of Interest
Gene Synonyms:TGFB1;TGFB
Protein Names:Transforming growth factor beta-1 proprotein [Cleaved into: Latency-associated peptide (LAP); Transforming growth factor beta-1 (TGF-beta-1)]
Accession Data
Organism:Homo sapiens (Human)
Mass (kDa):443.41
Length (aa):390
Sequence:MPPSGLRLLLLLLPLLWLLVLTPGRPAAGLSTCKTIDMELVKRKRIEAIRGQILSKLRLASPPSQGEVPPGPLPEAVLALYNSTRDRVAGESAEPEPEPEADYYAKEVTRVLMVETHNEIYDKFKQSTHSIYMFFNTSELREAVPEPVLLSRAELRLLRLKLKVEQHVELYQKYSNNSWRYLSNRLLAPSDSPEWLSFDVTGVVRQWLSRGGEIEGFRLSAHCSCDSRDNTLQVDINGFTTGRRGDLATIHGMNRPFLLLMATPLERAQHLQSSRHRRALDTNYCFSSTEKNCCVRQLYIDFRKDLGWKWIHEPKGYHANFCLGPCPYIWSLDTQYSKVLALYNQHNPGASAAPCCVPQALEPLPIVYYVGRKPKVEQLSNMIVRSCKCS
Proteomics (Proteome ID):UP000005640
Proteomics (Chromosome): Chromosome 19
Polymorphism: In post-menopausal Japanese women, the frequency of Leu-10 is higher in subjects with osteoporosis than in controls. {ECO:0000269|PubMed:9783545}.
Function [CC]:Transforming growth factor beta-1 proprotein: Precursor of the Latency-associated peptide (LAP) and Transforming growth factor beta-1 (TGF-beta-1) chains, which constitute the regulatory and active subunit of TGF-beta-1, respectively. {ECO:0000269|PubMed:29109152, ECO:0000303|PubMed:27252363}.; Latency-associated peptide: Required to maintain the Transforming growth factor beta-1 (TGF-beta-1) chain in a latent state during storage in extracellular matrix (PubMed:28117447). Associates non-covalently with TGF-beta-1 and regulates its activation via interaction with 'milieu molecules', such as LTBP1, LRRC32/GARP and LRRC33/NRROS, that control activation of TGF-beta-1 (PubMed:2022183, PubMed:8617200, PubMed:8939931, PubMed:19750484, PubMed:22278742, PubMed:19651619). Interaction with LRRC33/NRROS regulates activation of TGF-beta-1 in macrophages and microglia (Probable). Interaction with LRRC32/GARP controls activation of TGF-beta-1 on the surface of activated regulatory T-cells (Tregs) (PubMed:19750484, PubMed:22278742, PubMed:19651619). Interaction with integrins (ITGAV:ITGB6 or ITGAV:ITGB8) results in distortion of the Latency-associated peptide chain and subsequent release of the active TGF-beta-1 (PubMed:22278742, PubMed:28117447). {ECO:0000269|PubMed:19651619, ECO:0000269|PubMed:19750484, ECO:0000269|PubMed:2022183, ECO:0000269|PubMed:22278742, ECO:0000269|PubMed:28117447, ECO:0000269|PubMed:8617200, ECO:0000269|PubMed:8939931, ECO:0000305|PubMed:29909984}.; Transforming growth factor beta-1: Multifunctional protein that regulates the growth and differentiation of various cell types and is involved in various processes, such as normal development, immune function, microglia function and responses to neurodegeneration (By similarity). Activation into mature form follows different steps: following cleavage of the proprotein in the Golgi apparatus, Latency-associated peptide (LAP) and Transforming growth factor beta-1 (TGF-beta-1) chains remain non-covalently linked rendering TGF-beta-1 inactive during storage in extracellular matrix (PubMed:29109152). At the same time, LAP chain interacts with 'milieu molecules', such as LTBP1, LRRC32/GARP and LRRC33/NRROS that control activation of TGF-beta-1 and maintain it in a latent state during storage in extracellular milieus (PubMed:2022183, PubMed:8617200, PubMed:8939931, PubMed:19750484, PubMed:22278742, PubMed:19651619). TGF-beta-1 is released from LAP by integrins (ITGAV:ITGB6 or ITGAV:ITGB8): integrin-binding to LAP stabilizes an alternative conformation of the LAP bowtie tail and results in distortion of the LAP chain and subsequent release of the active TGF-beta-1 (PubMed:22278742, PubMed:28117447). Once activated following release of LAP, TGF-beta-1 acts by binding to TGF-beta receptors (TGFBR1 and TGFBR2), which transduce signal (PubMed:20207738). While expressed by many cells types, TGF-beta-1 only has a very localized range of action within cell environment thanks to fine regulation of its activation by Latency-associated peptide chain (LAP) and 'milieu molecules' (By similarity). Plays an important role in bone remodeling: acts as a potent stimulator of osteoblastic bone formation, causing chemotaxis, proliferation and differentiation in committed osteoblasts (By similarity). Can promote either T-helper 17 cells (Th17) or regulatory T-cells (Treg) lineage differentiation in a concentration-dependent manner (By similarity). At high concentrations, leads to FOXP3-mediated suppression of RORC and down-regulation of IL-17 expression, favoring Treg cell development (By similarity). At low concentrations in concert with IL-6 and IL-21, leads to expression of the IL-17 and IL-23 receptors, favoring differentiation to Th17 cells (By similarity). Stimulates sustained production of collagen through the activation of CREB3L1 by regulated intramembrane proteolysis (RIP) (PubMed:25310401). Mediates SMAD2/3 activation by inducing its phosphorylation and subsequent translocation to the nucleus (PubMed:25893292, PubMed:29483653). Can induce epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) and cell migration in various cell types (PubMed:25893292). {ECO:0000250|UniProtKB:P04202, ECO:0000269|PubMed:19651619, ECO:0000269|PubMed:19750484, ECO:0000269|PubMed:20207738, ECO:0000269|PubMed:2022183, ECO:0000269|PubMed:22278742, ECO:0000269|PubMed:25310401, ECO:0000269|PubMed:25893292, ECO:0000269|PubMed:28117447, ECO:0000269|PubMed:29109152, ECO:0000269|PubMed:29483653, ECO:0000269|PubMed:8617200, ECO:0000269|PubMed:8939931}.
Site:SITE 278 279 Cleavage; by FURIN. {ECO:0000269|PubMed:7737999}.
Tissue Specificity:Highly expressed in bone (PubMed:11746498, PubMed:17827158). Abundantly expressed in articular cartilage and chondrocytes and is increased in osteoarthritis (OA) (PubMed:11746498, PubMed:17827158). Colocalizes with ASPN in chondrocytes within OA lesions of articular cartilage (PubMed:17827158). {ECO:0000269|PubMed:11746498, ECO:0000269|PubMed:17827158}.
Disease:Camurati-Engelmann disease (CAEND) [MIM:131300]: An autosomal dominant disorder characterized by hyperostosis and sclerosis of the diaphyses of long bones. The disease typically presents in early childhood with pain, muscular weakness and waddling gait, and in some cases other features such as exophthalmos, facial paralysis, hearing difficulties and loss of vision. {ECO:0000269|PubMed:10973241, ECO:0000269|PubMed:11062463, ECO:0000269|PubMed:12493741, ECO:0000269|PubMed:12843182, ECO:0000269|PubMed:15103729}. Note=The disease is caused by mutations affecting the gene represented in this entry.; Inflammatory bowel disease, immunodeficiency, and encephalopathy (IBDIMDE) [MIM:618213]: An autosomal recessive disorder characterized by severe infantile inflammatory bowel disease manifesting as bloody diarrhea and failure to thrive, global developmental delay, epilepsy, brain atrophy and encephalopathy. Affected individuals suffer from recurrent infections associated with impaired T-cell response to stimulation and decreased T-cell subsets, including regulatory and helper T cells. {ECO:0000269|PubMed:29483653}. Note=The disease is caused by mutations affecting the gene represented in this entry.
Mutagenesis:MUTAGEN 33 33 C->S: Abolishes interchain disulfide bond with LTBP1 and/or LRRC32, and subsequent regulation of activation of TGF-beta-1. {ECO:0000269|PubMed:22278742, ECO:0000269|PubMed:8617200}.; MUTAGEN 75 75 E->A: Does not affect integrin-binding or activation of TGF-beta-1. {ECO:0000269|PubMed:28117447}.; MUTAGEN 158 158 L->A: Does not affect integrin-binding or activation of TGF-beta-1. {ECO:0000269|PubMed:28117447}.; MUTAGEN 160 160 L->A,R: Does not affect integrin-binding or activation of TGF-beta-1. {ECO:0000269|PubMed:28117447}.; MUTAGEN 193 193 P->A,R: Does not affect integrin-binding or activation of TGF-beta-1. {ECO:0000269|PubMed:28117447}.; MUTAGEN 232 236 LQVDI->GQGDG: Strongly inhibits integrin-binding and activation of TGF-beta-1. {ECO:0000269|PubMed:28117447}.; MUTAGEN 234 236 VDI->GDG: Strongly inhibits integrin-binding and activation of TGF-beta-1. {ECO:0000269|PubMed:28117447}.; MUTAGEN 237 237 N->A: Does not affect integrin-binding or activation of TGF-beta-1. {ECO:0000269|PubMed:28117447}.; MUTAGEN 254 254 N->A: Does not affect integrin-binding or activation of TGF-beta-1. {ECO:0000269|PubMed:28117447}.; MUTAGEN 257 260 FLLL->GLLG: Strongly inhibits integrin-binding and activation of TGF-beta-1. {ECO:0000269|PubMed:28117447}.; MUTAGEN 278 278 R->A: Prevents cleavage and subsequent maturation of the protein. Generated in order to mimic the structure of the Transforming growth factor beta-1 proprotein. {ECO:0000269|PubMed:29109152}.
Miscellaneous [CC]:TGF-beta-1 is inactivated by fresolimumab (also named GC1008), a monoclonal-neutralizing antibody. {ECO:0000269|PubMed:25209176}.
Reagent Data
Name:TGF-beta 1
Class:Growth Factor
Subcategory:Protein
Region:Leu 30 - Ser 390
Molecular Weight:42.1 (monomer)
Source:HEK293
Species:Human
Tag:His
Format:Lyophilized
Purification System:Chromatography
Formulation:Sterile-filtered colorless solution
Formulation Concentration:1 mg/ml
Buffer Volume:Standard
Buffer Solution:PBS
pH:7.4-7.5
Toxicity
Endotoxin Level:< 1%
Aggregate Tested By:SDS-PAGE
Endotoxin Screened:< 0.1 ng/ug
Purity:> 98%
Determined: SDS-PAGE
Stain:Blue
Chromotography:Anion-exchange
Validated: RP-HPLC
Sample Handling
Storage:-20°C
Stability:This bioreagent is stable at 4°C (short-term) and -70°C(long-term). After reconstitution, sample may be stored at 4°C for 2-7 days and below -18°C for future use.
Preparation:Reconstitute in sterile distilled H2O to no less than 100 ug/ml; dilute reconstituted stock further in other aqueous solutions if needed. Please review COA for lot-specific instructions. Final measurements should be determined by the end-user for optimal performance.